Recent articles and studies have focused on the increased use of certain surfactants/adjuvants as a contributing factor to bee mortality and bee learning disorders. EPA does not regulate adjuvants hence little is known with regard to adjuvants toxilogical effects on bees. Increased scrutiny of pesticides use around foraging bees has now led to question on tank mix adjuvants that are routinely applied with those pesticides.
Miller Pinolene products (Nu Film® P, Nu Film® 17 and Sustain®) are one of a few adjuvants that has had Ecotox studies performed on honey bees. In both Oral and Dermal Ecotox studies Pinolene's LD 50 was found to be completely NON TOXIC TO BEES. A second study involved the use of copper oxychloride (high toxic pesticide) as reference by itself or combined with Pinolene.
The results of this study concluded that Pinolene did not increase the toxicity of the pesticide to honey bees.